(Triticum monococcum L.)

The einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.), also known as small spelt, is an ancient grain that has been the staple food of rural populations, along with spelt and barley, until the Bronze Age (about 5000 years ago). I loved this cereal since I started looking for it, to meet the demand of some people who, having heard about it, asked me if I thought possible to develop a recipe for a bread made with the flour made by its grinding. I must say that the most difficult in developing the recipe was to being able to get the flour. Through my usual suppliers was impossible for me. So I had to increase my range and I turn to other dealers.

As already had happened with other flours derived from grains not well known as Khorasan (marketed under the name best known of Kamut), even for monococco I found a lot of misinformation about it.
In fact, once I found out that in northern Italy there were at least two manufacturers, I found that most of the people I had the opportunity to talk, in general, told of rumors in the trade, but when I asked to have official references , no one could give them to me. In practice, their limited knowledge of the real features of monococco, brought most of them describe it as something miraculous, a cereal "probably" also suitable for people suffering from celiac disease.

Precisely this affirmation, which I thought was too optimistic, prompted me to do more research. By now I was able to get me flour monococco by more than a dealer, but this was not enough. I wanted to discover the real characteristics of this cereal.
Through some websites and suggestions of some participants in discussions regarding the monococco, I could find some publications on scientific research made in the past.
As for other cereals, even for the monococco several varieties exist, like many other cereals also have the specific organoleptic characteristics that make it very interesting from the nutritional point of view, but not for this "miraculous".

Moreover, through the results of a research made by team of Prof. Lanzini (Director of Gastroenterology Department at the University of Brescia and Civil Hospitals of Brescia), I got confirmation that: also monococco, like all cereals containing gluten , is not suitable for the diet of celiac and probably for most of the intolerant to gluten.

To quote the exact phrase shown in the results of experimentation, presented in May 2012, to the American Congress of Gastroenterology (DDW 2012) in San Diego:
"CONCLUSION:Our study shows a toxic effect of gluten of Tm [monococco] as judged on clinical, serological and histological criteria. Tm is not a safe cereal for celiacs."

Below the copy of the attachment "Sa 1322" published in the journal  of American Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 5 (1) S272-273.

Other publication, which I acquired during my research, about searches that aimed to evaluate the quality of the rheological dough made with flour monococco and possible reintegration into the production cycle of agriculture with low environmental impact. Through the data that I found in them, I learned about the different varieties of einkorn.

As reported in the publications, the varieties have different characteristics in terms of nutrition. Some contain a greater percentage of gluten than others, would therefore be more suitable for baking. Unfortunately, the variety of einkorn from which is obtained the flour that I buy, which is produced by a einkorn grown to a few tens of kilometers from where I live, has a low percentage of gluten.

Ötzi's bread

Despite this, I still managed, with only flour of einkorn, to make a recipe I wanted to call "Ötzi's bread". Taking inspiration for the realization and the type of bread made, to the ancient inhabitant of the Alps, whose mummy was found near the border between Italy and Austria.

Ötzi's bread

However, in order to obtain mixtures with a good leavening, is necessary to mix the flour of einkorn with flours that contain a higher percentage of gluten. However, for biscuits, crackers, breadsticks and desserts, can be used without being mixed with other flours. Personally I almost always use wholemeal flour of einkorn . Except in cases where, to have a softer product, the I mix with the flour of einkorn type 2, wheat or hard wheat.
Loaves with flours of einkorn and wheat

With this flour, I can do almost all the dough that I did before I discover it. I realize sweet and bread dough, pizza or focaccia. The pastry that you get with it, is very tasty and fragrant.
Crostata with lemon jam. Made with a shortcrust pastry of einkorn

The aroma, flavor and color that gives einkorn to doughs are, in my humble opinion, definitely the best I've ever achieved. There are probably other flours that can make so much tasty and sweet-smelling doughs, but for now the einkorn is the best I have ever had occasion to try.

Not even Kamut or some good varieties of Spelt and durum wheat were able to give me so much satisfaction.

If you are interested in the files containing the documentation that I have collected, please contact me via e-mail, or by entering a comment.


  1. Hi,

    Would you be so kind as to share your documentation, and especially where I can obtain different varieties of eincorn.

    Thank you very much,
    Stephen Short
    Garner, Iowa

  2. Oops, forgot to include my email address:


    Stephen Short

    1. Hi Mr. Short,
      I will answer and send you the files of the documentation, as soon as possible to your e-mail address.
      Kind regards
      Luca Zanardi

  3. Me too. If you please, send me not the documentation, but where I can get the einkorn flour. Thanks.

  4. Dear Mr. Moor,
    At the moment I am not yet able to know who sells einkorn flour in the United States.
    Since my policy is not to advertise on my blog any commercial websites or otherwise, I will send directly to your e-mail (a.s.a.p.)a link of an Italian website that sell and ship the flour of one of the producers that I consider reliable. Try to contact them.

  5. I have been buying Einkorn Flour from places in the United States the past couple of months. Luca, since you don't like to advertise on your site, how can I get this informaiton to others? My emails is janisimonroe@hotmail.com

    1. Hi Janis,
      since you put your e-mail addres in your comment, I think that those who were interested to the names of your suppliers could write you to ask for informations. Otherwise, you can leave another comment with the links of your supplaiers of einkorn's flour.
      My policy is not to write in my posts the names of my suppliers of flours or other items (in order to avoid to adverts), but any other informations that can be useful to the readers of my blog are welcome(without exaggeration ;-).